The Eiffel Tower is a wrought iron lattice tower on the camp de Mars in Paris, France. It is named on the engineer Gustavo Eiffel, the owner of the company who designed and built the tower.
Locally in France it’s nickname as “Iron Lady”. It was built from 1887 to 1889 as the entrance to the 1889 world’s Fair and it became a global cultural icon of France. It is the most visited paid monument in the world.
The height of the Eiffel tower is 324 Meters (1063 Ft), 81 story building which is the tallest structure in the Paris. The Eiffel tower surprised the Washington Monument, during its construction to become the tallest man made construction in the world.
Eiffel tower has three levels for its visitors consisting restaurants on its first and second level. Top level upper platform is 276 M (906ft) above the ground level. This is the highest observation deck accessible for the public in the European Union.
History | Origin.
Design of the Eiffel Tower is made by Maurice Koechlin and Emile Nouguier, was the two senior engineers working in the company of Gustavo Eiffel. Purpose of the construction of Eiffel Tower was a suitable center piece for the proposed Exposition 1989. It was a world fair to celebrate the centennial of the French Revolution.
Maurice Koechlin made a sketch of theirs idea in May 1884, called as “a great pylon”. Gustavo Eiffel approved the sketch for the further study and asked company’s head of architectural department Mr. “Stephen Sauyestre” to work on design. Stephen added decorative arches to the base of the tower, glass pavilion to the first level and some other embellishments.
Gustavo Eiffel support the new version of the design. After then the design was placed in the Exhibition of Decorative Arts, with the company name held in autumn 1884.
Gustavo present his plans on 30th March 1885, by finishing his talk by saying that the tower would symbolise:
“Not only the art of the modern engineer, but also the century of Industrand Science in which we are living, and for which the way was prepared by the great scientific movement of the eighteenth century and by the Revolution of 1789, to which this monument will be built as an expression of France’s gratitude.”
Design | Material.
The wrought iron of the Eiffel Tower weighs 7300 tons. Whereas the lifts, shops & antennae have brought the weight to approx. 10100 tons.
Many people were shocked by its daring form. But the Eiffel and his team were experienced bridge builders who understood the importance of wind forces and they knew that if building the tallest structure in the world, it has to be sure that it could withstand them.
Eiffel said in an interview with the newspaper published on 14 February, 1887
“Is it not true that the very conditions which give strength also conform to the hidden rules of harmony? Now to what phenomenon did I have to give primary concern in designing the Tower? It was wind resistance.
Well then! I hold that the curvature of the monument’s four outer edges, which is as mathematical calculation dictated it should be give a great impression of strength and beauty, for it will reveal to the eyes of the observer the boldness of the design as a whole.
I thoroughly examine it reveals that it is basically exponential shape. All parts of the Eiffel are designed to resist the wind forces.
After building the first level contained three restaurants, one French, one Russian and one Flemish and an American Bar. After closure of exposition Flemish restaurant was converted to a theatre of 250 seats.
At the top, there were laboratories for different experiments. There was also a small apartment that was reserved for Gustave Eiffel for his personal use, which is now open for the public.
On the first level an apartment was created in May 2016 to accommodate four competition winners of the UEFA EURO 2016, football tournament in Paris in June.
It contains two bedrooms, a lounge, a kitchen, and views of Paris landmarks including the seine, Sacre Coeur, and the Arc de Triomphe.
Gustave Eiffel engraved the names of 72 French Scientists, Engineers and Mathematicians in recognition of their contributions to the building of the tower.
The tower is painted in three shades: lighter at the top, getting progressively darker towards the bottom to complement the Parisian sky. It was originally reddish brown; this changed in 1968 to a bronze colour known as “Eiffel Tower Brown”.
The only non-structural elements are the four decorative grill-work arches, added in Sauvestre’s sketches, which served to make the tower look more substantial and to make a more impressive entrance to the exposition.
60 tons of paint is used in every seven years to prevent tower from rusting. Since it was built the tower is completely repainted approx. 19 times.